Now here’s the trick: One lady is “cooperative” and “generous,” which means that if they bring her to the box containing their preferred food, the dogs will get their preferred treat. The other lady is “uncooperative” and “selfish,” so the dogs will not get the treat they want if they bring her to the box with food, because she will take and keep the treat in her pocket. Then the dogs would go back to their owners who would give them the same command and the owners would reward them with what’s in the box. If the box was already empty because the food was previously taken by the “selfish” woman, they would get nothing.
So you see, there was a chance for them to use tactics to mislead the ladies here. The results showed that the dogs would lead the “generous” woman to their preferred food almost 80% of the time. Whereas the “selfish” woman was led to their favorite food only less than 20% of the time. This led the researchers to the conclusion that dogs are able to lie to us if it benefits them.